Diabetic Neuropathy: Types, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment

Diabetic Neuropathy: Types, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment

What is diabetic neuropathy?

Diabetic neuropathy or diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage, which can be caused by people with diabetes.

If you have diabetes, or if you have high amounts of glucose in your blood, then your veins or blood vessels (which brings oxygen into your veins) can be damaged. Neuropathy can affect any nerve in the body, but in particular, it affects the ganglia (outside the scalp), the nerves affecting the functioning of the spinal cord, the heart, the bladder, the intestinal and the stomach, and the functioning of the fundamental organs. is.

There are various types of symptoms due to various types of nerve damage. These symptoms can cause problems in your internal organs such as your heart and bladder, from pain and numbness in your feet. Diabetes neuropathy is a common and serious complication of diabetes. But you can prevent diabetes neuropathy by slowing blood sugar and healthy lifestyle or slow down its progress.

It can be due to several reasons, and they all are concerned about the long blood sugar levels being too high.

  1. Types of Diabetic Neuropathy
  2. Symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy
  3. Due to Diabetic Neuropathy
  4. Prevention of Diabetic Neuropathy
  5. Testing of Diabetic Neuropathy
  6. Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy
  7. Complications of Diabetic Neuropathy

Types of Diabetic Neuropathy

How many types of diabetic neuropathy are?

Diabetic neuropathy is mainly of four types, which are the following:

  • Peripheral neuropathy: which affects the feet and hands, is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy.
  • Autonomic Neuropathy: It affects nerves that control the involuntary functions of the body such as digestion
  • Focal Neuropathy: It is a condition in which usually a single (single) vein is damaged in your hands, head, torso, and leg.
  • Proximal neuropathy: This is a rare type of nerve damage that is inefficient in your hips or thighs.

Symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy

What are the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy?

Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy depend on its type and the nerves that are affected. Generally, its symptoms develop gradually.

Autonomic Neuropathy

  • Chest burning and swelling
  • Nausea, constipation or diarrhea
  • Unable to detect hypoglycemia
  • Difficulty speaking
  • difficulty swallowing
  • Feeling stomach filled with food in a small quantity
  • Vomiting only after a few hours of eating
  • Orthostatic hypotension, or a minor headache and dizziness when standing
  • Heartbeat faster than usual
  • excessive sweating
  • Having bladder problems
  • Sexual problems in men
  • Inability to experience vaginal dryness and extreme pleasure (organism) in women
  • Diazesthesia (distortion of the ability to feel touch)
  • Hanging of the face and eyelids
  • The feeling of muscle contraction and weakness

Peripheral neuropathy

  • Tickling
  • Loss of organs (which can be permanent)
  • The feeling of irritation (especially in the evening)
  • Pain
  • Proximal neuropathy

There is a pain in the thighs and hips (usually on one side) in it. It can also cause a weakness in the legs.

Proximal neuropathy

This type of neuropathy causes pain in the hips and thighs. It can also be caused by weakness in the legs.

Focal neuropathy

  • Double vision
  • Pain in the eye
  • paralysis of the face
  • Serious pain in some part, such as lower waist and leg
  • Chest or stomachache which is sometimes also understood as a heart attack or appendicitis.

When to show the doctor?

These signs and symptoms do not always mean that you have nerve damage. But this can be a sign of a serious problem for which medical care is required.

If you experience the following symptoms, contact the doctor:

  • Infected cuts or wounds on the feet that are not recovering
  • burning sensation, weakness or pain in the hands or feet that inhibits daily activities or sleep
  • Any direct changes in digestion, urination or sexual activity
  • dizziness

Due to Diabetic Neuropathy

Why is diabetic neuropathy?

Over time, high levels of glucose in the blood due to diabetes, and high levels of fat (triglycerides) can damage your nerves. An increased level of glucose in the blood can also damage the small blood vessels (which deliver oxygen and nutrients to the nerves). Without adequate oxygen and nutrients, your nerves can not work well.

Nerve damage can occur due to several reasons including:

  • Swelling in the veins due to an autoimmune reaction: The body’s immune system detects the reaction (which is a disorder) by detecting the danger from the nerves.
  • Some genetic factors (which do not have any connection with diabetes) can also increase the appetite for nerve damage in some people.
  • Anyone who is suffering from diabetes may have neuropathy, but there is a greater risk of nerve damage due to the following reasons:
  • Blood sugar to be uncontrolled
  • History of diabetes
  • Having kidney disease
  • Being overweight
  • Being High BP
  • High cholesterol
  • Drinking too much
  • Drinking cigarettes

Research also suggests that some genes can increase the risk of people having diabetes neuropathy.

Prevention of Diabetic Neuropathy 

How to Avoid Diabetic Neuropathy?

To prevent diabetes neuropathy, it is important to manage diabetes by controlling the amount of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol in the blood.

To prevent nerve damage related to diabetes, you should take the following measures:

  • Follow the diet plan described in diabetes
  • Quit smoking
  • Drink less alcohol
  • Take medicines of diabetes and other problems prescribed by the doctor
  • Keep BP in control
  • Eat healthy food and balanced meals
  • Exercise daily

For all those with diabetes, foot care is very important, especially for those with peripheral neuropathy, it is even more important. Check your feet every day, and take good care of them. Show the doctor for a neurological test and foot test at least once a year.

Diabetic neuropathy test

How is diabetic neuropathy tested?

The test doctor of diabetic neuropathy examines the effects of ankle reflex, ability to feel touch, changes in skin and changes in skin color by the following test:

  • Neural testing
  • Physical examination

With this, doctors can do some special tests to assist in the testing of diabetic neuropathy, such as:

  • Filament Test: In this test, the doctor brushing the soft nylon fiber (monofilament) on your skin to test the ability to feel the touch.
  • Quantitative sensory test: This noninvasive test is used to determine how the nerves react to changes in vibration and temperature.
  • Autonomic test: If the doctor is suspected of autonomic neuropathy, special tests can be done to see what is your blood pressure in different conditions, and whether you sweat is coming normally.

    (Read more: Blindness: Steps, Signs, Prevention, Treatment)

In other tests, the affected organs may be tested for ultrasound or blood pressure or heart rate variability.

If the doctor suspects diabetic neuropathy, then he may ask the patient for some diagnostic tests, such as electromyogram (EMG), which records electrical activity in the muscles, or the Nerve Conductivity Visitation Test (NCV).

Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy

What is the treatment of diabetic neuropathy?

There are three main ways to treat diabetic neuropathy:

1. Medicines: 

Antidrippress can help to control pain.

2. Physical therapy:

Physical therapy helps in reducing pain and reducing drug dependence when used in combination with drugs.

Electric nerve stimulation is painless, and it can help in the removal of clamps and treatment of foot ulcers.

It is taught to walk again in gait training. It helps prevent and stabilize foot complications like ulcers. Due to diabetic neuropathy, move training is very important for people who have lost limbs and those using proteins.

Other treatments include such devices whose work is to prevent excessive painful organs from touching the bed or chair. Topical lotions and some supplements can also provide relief in this.

Chiropractors, massage therapists, or osteopathy can do regular massage or manual therapy to help spread the muscles. The contraction of the muscles due to the lack of blood, the vein climb, and the atrophy can be prevented by massaging.

Specialized exercises such as swimming or aerobics develop and maintain muscle strength and also prevent deficiency in muscle mass.

3. Alternative Treatment

Many alternative treatments, such as capsaicin cream (made from chili), physical therapy or acupuncture, are also available, which can relieve pain. Doctors often use them with medicines.

4. Alpha Lipoic Acid

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TNS): Signs of pain from this therapy can be prevented from reaching your mind. TENS is given a small electrical impulse in the specific nerve routes through small electrodes placed on your skin.

Acupuncture: Acupuncture helps to relieve the pain of neuropathy, and usually does not have any side effects. Keep in mind that acupuncture does not provide immediate relief and possibly requires more than one session.

Complications of diabetic neuropathy

What other problems can be with diabetic neuropathy?

There are many complications from Diabetic Neuropathy, which you should know about. Peripheral neuropathy can cause foot problems (such as lesions, ulcers, and infections), because of the nerve damage you lose the ability to feel in the feet. Nerve damage can also be a cause of problems of balance and coordination, which can lead to fall and fracture.

Diabetic neuropathy may have the following problems:

  • Urinary Tract Problems
  • lack of ability to feel touch in the legs
  • Unable to feel the wounds
  • Muscle damage
  • The decrease in muscle mass
  • Repeated nausea and vomiting blood sugar control.
  • Digestive problems
  • Having a low BP when standing (orthostatic hypotension)
  • Sexual Diseases
  • Bladder disease
  • kidney infection

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