Chronic Kidney Disease: Steps, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment
What is Chronic Kidney Disease (Kidney Disease)?
When the ability to slowly perform kidney function for several years, it is called chronic kidney disease. The last stage of this disease is a permanent kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease is also known as a chronic renal failure, chronic renal disease or chronic kidney failure.
When the functioning of the kidney starts slowing and the situation starts to deteriorate, then the amount of waste and liquid produced in our bodies increases to the level of danger. The purpose of its treatment is to prevent or slow down the disease – it is usually done by controlling its main cause.
Chronic kidney disease is more detailed than people’s thinking. Unless this disease spreads well in the body, nothing can be known about this disease or its symptoms. When the kidney works 75 percent less than its capacity, then people realize that they have kidney disease.
- Steps of Kidney Disease
- Symptoms of Kidney Disease
- Due to Kidney Disease
- Prevention of Kidney Disease
- Testing of Kidney Disease
- Treatment of Kidney Disease
- Risks and Complications of Kidney Disease
Phases of Kidney Disease
Phases of chronic kidney disease are as follows:
Chronic kidney disease is divided into five stages. When the doctor detects the stage of a person’s kidney disease, then he can treat them well. Different tests and treatments are needed at each stage of this disease.
Glomerular Filtration Rate – GFR
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best way to measure the functioning of the kidney. GFR is a number, which is used to understand the stage of a person’s kidney disease. Using a person’s age, race, sex, and their serum creatinine, a mathematical formula is formed, by which GFR is calculated. Doctors recommend blood tests to measure the level of serum creatinine. Creatinine is a waste product that emits from muscle activity. When the kidneys work well, they clean the creatine from the blood thoroughly. As soon as the power of the kidneys is slowed, the level of creatinine in the blood increases.
Below are five steps for CKD and GFR for each stage –
Step 1 Normal or Higher GFR (GFR> 90ml / min)
Step 2 Lower CKD (GFR = 60-89 mL / min)
Step 3A Medium CKD (GFR = 45-59ml / min)
Stage 3b Medium CKD (GFR = 30-44 mL / min)
Step 4 Critical CKD (GFR = 15-29 mL / min)
Stage 5 final step CKD (GFR <15 mL / min)
Once you understand GFR, you can determine the stage of kidney disease.
Symptoms of Kidney Disease (Chronic Kidney Disease)
Chronic kidney failure, unlike acute kidney failure, is a gradually progressive disease. Even if a kidney stops working, then another kidney can function normally. The symptoms are not visible until the disease is reached in its higher stage. In this stage, the damage caused by illness cannot be cured.
It is very important that those who are more likely to have kidney disease should check their kidneys regularly. When the disease is detected at the beginning, serious damage to the kidneys can be prevented.
Common symptoms of chronic kidney disease include:
- Anemia (lack of blood)
- Blood in the urine
- Deepening urine color
- Reduction in mental alertness
- The decrease in urine volume
- Edema – swollen feet, hands, and ankles (face ache when edema is severe.)
- Itching regularly in the skin
- Hunger work
- Erectile Dysfunction
- Early urination (especially at night)
- Muscle Spasm
- Muscle twitches (muscle twitches)
- lower back pain in the middle of the back
- Protein in urine
- A sudden change in body weight (Read More: Weight LOSE)
- A sudden headache
Due to kidney disease (kidney disease)
What are the causes of CKD?
The complex system of filtration in our body completes the kidney. These extra waste and fluids are separated from the blood by the body to emit. Each kidney has approximately 1 million micro-filtering units, which are called nephrons. Any disease that causes nephron damage can also cause kidney disease. Both diabetes and hypertension are such diseases that can damage nephrons. (Most kidney disease is due to diabetes and hypertension.)
In most cases, the kidney helps in the removal of most of the waste products produced in our body. However, if the blood flow to the kidneys is affected, then they do not work well. The reason for this happens is any damage or illness. If there is an obstruction in urine, then problems can occur.
In most cases, the result of any chronic illness is CKD, such as:
- Diabetes – Chronic Kidney Disease has been linked to type 1 diabetes and 2 diabetes. If the patient’s diabetes is not properly controlled then the excessive amount of sugar (glucose) can be stored in the blood. Kidney disease is not common in the first 10 years of diabetes. This disease usually occurs after 15-25 years of diagnosis of diabetes.
- High blood pressure – High blood pressure can damage the glomeruli parts found in the kidneys. Glomeruli help in filtering waste materials present in the body.
- Inhibited urine flow – If urine flow is stopped, then it is deposited in the kidneys from the bladder to the kidneys. The flow of stopped urine increases the pressure on the kidneys and reduces its work capacity. The possible causes include enlarged prostate, kidney stone or tumor in the kidneys.
- Another kidney disease – This includes polycystic kidney disease, pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis (glomerulonephritis).
- Kidney artery stenosis – Before the kidney enters the kidney artery is limited or stops.
- Some toxic substances – These include fuel, solvents (such as carbon tetrachloride, lead and made paint, pipes and soldering materials). Even some types of jewelry contain toxic substances, which can cause kidney failure.
- Problems with the development of embryos – If the kidneys of the developing womb are not properly developed.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus – This is an autoimmune disease. In this, the body’s own immune system severely affects the kidneys as they are an external tissue.
- Malaria and yellow fever – Are responsible for the obstruction of kidney function.
- Some medicines – For example, NSAIDs, such as excessive use of aspirin or ibuprofen.
- Intake of illegal substances – Such as heroin or cocaine.
- Injury – A severe blow or injury on the kidneys.
Prevention of kidney disease (kidney disease)
How can chronic kidney disease be prevented?
You can not always prevent CKD. However, the risk of kidney disease can be reduced by controlling hypertension and diabetes. If you have a severe kidney problem then you should do regular checkups for it. Upon expediting the diagnosis of CKD, it can be prevented from growing.
Individuals with this disease should follow the instructions and advice given by their doctor.
A nutritious diet, which contains lots of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, no fat meat or fish, helps in reducing hypertension.
Regular physical exercise is considered ideal for maintaining normal blood pressure levels. It also helps in controlling chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Everyone should consult a doctor about their age, weight, and health-friendly exercise.
Avoid some substances
Do not consume alcohol and drugs. Avoid contact with heavy metals such as Lead for longer periods of time. Protect yourself from fuel, solvents and other toxic chemicals.
Testing of kidney disease (diagnosis of Chronic Disease)
How is chronic kidney disease diagnosed?
The doctors will check the symptoms and ask about the symptoms of the patients. The following tests can also be suggested –
- Blood test – The doctor is given a consultation for blood tests, to determine whether the waste generated in the body is well filtered. If the level of urea and creatinine is increasing, then the doctors will diagnose the final phase of kidney disease.
- Urine test – Urine test helps to determine if there is an amount of blood or protein in the urine.
- Kidney scan – Kidney scan can also include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, computed tomography scan (CT scan) or ultrasound. Its purpose is to determine whether there is any obstruction in urine flow or not. This scan estimates the size of the kidneys. In the early stages of kidney disease, kidney size becomes small and unusual.
- Kidney biopsy – A small sample of kidney tissues is taken and the loss of cell is checked. Analysis of kidney tissues makes it easier to diagnose illness accurately.
- Chest x-ray – Its purpose is to check pulmonary edema – which retains fluid in the lungs.
- Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) – GFR is a test which measures the glomerular filtration rate. It works in measuring the level of waste products in the patient’s blood and urine. GFR estimates how many milliliters can be filtered per minute by the waste kidney. Typically a healthy person’s kidneys can filter over 90 milliliters of waste per minute.
Treatment of kidney disease (Chronic kidney disease)
What is the treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease?
There is no treatment available for chronic kidney disease at the present time. However, there are some treatments which help in controlling its symptoms, reducing risks and preventing disease progression.
- Treatment of Anemia – Hemoglobin is a substance found in red blood cells, which conveys oxygen to all parts of the body. When the amount of hemoglobin is reduced in the body, the patient gets anemia. People who suffer from kidney disease, have anemia, they need a blood transfusion. Typically a person with kidney disease has to take iron supplements either in the form of ferrous sulfate tablets or sometimes in the form of injections.
- Phosphate Balance – Kidney patients are not able to completely expel the amount of phosphate from their body. Such patients are advised to use a minimal amount of phosphate in their diet. Do not consume patient’s dairy products, red meat, eggs, and fish.
- Vitamin D – Vitamin D levels are very low in kidney patients. Vitamin D is very important for healthy bones. Vitamin D is obtained from the sun and food. This is activated by the kidneys first, then the body can use this vitamin. Patients are given alfacalcidol or calcitriol in this disease.
- Hypertension – High blood pressure is a common problem in chronic kidney patients. It is very important that the levels of blood pressure remain normal, which can reduce the risks of kidneys.
- Fluid Retention – Those who have Kidney disease should be careful before taking any kind of fluid. If the patient’s kidneys do not work properly, the fluid in their body begins to grow very fast. Therefore, most patients are prevented from consuming fluid.
- Skin Itching – Antihistamines, such as chlorphenamine, help to reduce the symptoms of itching.
- Anti-Sickness Medicines – If the kidneys do not work properly, the toxic substances begin to become present in the patient’s body. With this, the patient can feel ill (nausea). Medicines such as cyclizine or metoclopramide are helpful in this disease.
- Diet – For the effective treatment of kidney failure, it is very important to consume a proper diet. As mentioned above, stop taking protein in the diet can prevent the disease from growing. By taking such a diet, the symptoms of nausea also decrease. To keep high blood pressure in control, it is important to take salt intake in the right quantity. Over time potassium and phosphorus intake are also gradually stopped.
- NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) – drugs such as NSAIDs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, should be avoided and should be taken only on medical advice.
Treatment of kidney disease of the last stage
This happens when the kidneys are working 10-15 percent less than normal capacity. Treatments that have been done so far, such as medicines, diet, and control of its main causes, are not sufficient for some time after this disease. In the final stage, the patient’s kidney wastes and fluids cannot be taken out of the body themselves. In this situation, the patient needs dialysis or kidney transplantation.
Most doctors try to avoid the need for dialysis or kidney transplants for as long as possible, as this may have to face serious complications with the patient.
- Kidney Dialysis
When the kidneys stop functioning properly, it can not get rid of waste materials and an excessive amount of fluid accumulated from the blood. In such a situation, it helps in the removal of dialysis. There are some serious threats to the dialysis process, such as infections. (Read more: Infection: Types, Signs, Prevention, Treatment)
There are two main types of kidney dialysis –
In this procedure, the blood is taken out of the patient’s body and then it is passed from a larger (an artificial kidney). Such patients need to do the procedure of hemodialysis three times a week. Each process takes at least 3 hours. Experts now believe that patients can have a better quality of life by making the hemodialysis process early. Modern dialysis machines used at home can make more and more regular use of patient hemodialysis.
- Peritoneal dialysis
The peritoneal cavity has a large network of small blood vessels. By this, the blood is filtered in the patient’s stomach. A catheter is inserted into the stomach, through which the dialysis solution is transported inside the body. Through this, the waste material and fluid present in the body is taken out.
- Kidney Transplant
Apart from kidney failure, kidney transplantation is a good alternative to dialysis for people who do not have any other disease. However, patients with kidney transplantation have to undergo dialysis until they get new kidneys. Both kidneys and recipients should have a blood type, cell proteins, and antibodies so that there is no risk in transplanting new kidneys. Siblings or very close relatives are generally considered to be the best donors. If a living donor is not available then a dead person’s kidney can also be used.
Risks and complications of kidney disease (Chronic Kidney Disease)
Factors Affecting Chronic Kidney Disease
The risk of kidney disease can increase in the following situations –
- Family history in which a member has kidney disease
- Age – Chronic kidney disease is common in people over 60 years of age.
- Bladder obstruction
- Chronic glomerulonephritis (glomerulonephritis)
- Congenital Kidney Disease (Kidney Disease, which is present from the time of birth)
- Diabetes – one of the most common risk factors.
- Lupus erythematosus
- High Impact of Some Toxic Substances
- Sickle-cell disease (this leads to loss of blood in the body)
- Some medicines
Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease
If chronic kidney disease increases the likelihood of kidney failure, then it is possible to have problems written below –
- Lack of blood (Anemia)
- The destruction of the central nervous system
- Dry skin or skin color change
- fluid retention
- Hyperkalemia – increasing the level of blood potassium, which can lead to heart damage.
- Lack of libido
- Erectile dysfunction in men
- osteomalacia – bones become weak and easily break down.
- Pericarditis – A sac-like membrane (Pericardium) that keeps the inner layer of the heart closed, swells.
- Stomach ulcer
- Weak disease system (immune system)