Cancer Treatment: Types, Phases, Symptoms, Prevention
Cancer Treatment: Our body is composed of many types of cells. As these cells are needed by them, these cells divide and grow in a controlled way. But sometimes it happens that the body does not need any of these cells, yet they continue to grow. This abnormal development of cells is called cancer (which is usually produced from an abnormal cell) in which the cells lose normal control. Thus, a group of cells continuously increase uncontrolled, which attacks surrounding adjacent tissues, which reaches the distant parts of the body and spreads through the lymph or blood to other parts of the body. Cancer cells can grow in any tissue of the body.
As the cancer cells grow and multiply, they take the form of a group of cancer cells called tumors. These tumors attack nearby tissues and destroy them. The tumor can cause cancers or non-cancerous. Cancer cells can spread from one place to the entire body (metastases).
The change in the cell’s genetic material is cancer. Changes in the genetic material of a cell can happen either by itself or by some agents or elements. These agents are Chemicals, Tobacco, Virus, Radiation, and Sunlight. But it is not necessary that all cells are equally affected with these agents. A genetic defect in cells makes these agents susceptible to the body. Even long-term physical irritation can also make these agents susceptible to one cell.
Some agents or agents (promoters) cause to grow in the development of cancer. These agents may also contain some substances or medicines available in the environment such as sex hormone testosterone which is used to improve sexual desire and energy in older men. Unlike carcinogens, these promoters themselves do not cause cancer. Instead, these promoters promote the growth of cancer-affected cells. These promoters have no effect on the cells in which the onset of cancer has not started.
Elements that cause some cancers cause cancer without the need of promoters. For example, ionizing radiation – which is mostly used in X-rays) can cause various cancers, especially sarcoma, leukemia, thyroid cancer, and breast cancers.
How does cancer spread?
Cancer can grow directly in the surrounding tissues or spread to organs, whether they are away or nearby. Cancer can spread through the lymphatic system. This type of dispersal also occurs in carcinoma. For example, breast cancer usually spreads to the nearest lymph nodes in the vicinity and later it spread to other parts of the body. Cancer can also spread through blood flow. This type of spread is also found in sarcoma cancer.
- Types of Cancer
- Phases of Cancer
- Symptoms of Cancer
- Causes of Cancer
- Prevention of Cancer
- Cancer test
- Treatment of Cancer
- Risks and complications of Cancer
- Ashwagandha for Cancer Treatment
Types of cancer
There are many types of cancer, some of them are –
- Breast Cancer
- Cervical cancer (cervical cancer)
- Mouth cancer (oral cancer)
- Prostate cancer (cancer of the prostate gland)
- uterine cancer (cervical cancer)
- Ovarian cancer (ovary cancer)
- Lung cancer (lung cancer)
- Stomach cancer
- Blood cancer (leukemia)
- Bone Cancer (Bone Cancer)
- Colorectal cancer (colon cancer)
- Throat cancer
- Liver cancer
- Vaginal cancer
- Skin cancer
- Bladder Cancer
- Pancreatic cancer
- Brain cancer (brain cancer)
- Kidney cancer (Kidney cancer)
- Testicular cancers
Cancer tissues can be divided into the blood and blood-forming tissues (leukemia and lymphomas) and “solid” tumors (solid mass of cells), often called cancer. Cancer can be carcinoma or sarcoma.
Leukemia and lymphoma are blood cancer. Leukemia is produced from blood-borne cells, in which bone marrow and immature white blood cells with high amounts of blood flow are displaced instead of normal blood cells. Cancer lymph nodes are expanded in lymphoma. Lymphoma often begins with lymph nodes but it can also be found in the adjacent, genital, stomach, chest or intestine.
Carcinoma is the most common type of cancer. In which cancer cells affect the internal and external parts of the body such as lungs, breast and stomach cancer. It starts with the epithelium tissue of the skin. Examples of carcinoma are cancer of the skin, lungs, colon, stomach, breast, prostate, and thyroid gland. Typically, people older than men are more carcinoma than carcinoma.
Tumors occurring in sarcoma tissues (tissues) are associated with each other. Common connective tissues include fat, blood vessels, nerves, bones, muscles, cartilage etc. Examples of sarcoma are – leiomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma (bone cancer). Typically, this cancer is higher in older people than older people.
Symptoms of cancer sign
When cancer cells are in very small form then the signs of cancer do not appear. But as cancer grows, its presence can affect the surrounding tissues. Apart from this, due to some cancer, the secretion of certain substances from the body or some cancers trigger immune responses, from which parts of the body which are away from the parts of the cancerous genus can also cause cancer symptoms.
Pain – Some cancers are painless before, but the initial symptom of some cancers can be painful, such as brain tumors, which lead to a headache, and head, neck, and anophthalmia cancers, which cause pain during swallowing. As the cancer increases, its first symptom is often uncomfortable, which can rapidly turn into severe pain with the spread of cancer. However, not all cancers cause severe pain. Likewise, the lack of pain does not guarantee that cancer is not spreading or spreading.
Bleeding – A small blood can come in cancer because its blood vessels are fragile. Later, as cancer grows and attacks the surrounding tissues, it can increase in a nearby blood vessel, causing bleeding. This bleeding can be mild and can be diagnosed with or not, it can be detected only with the test. This is often the case of early-stage colon cancer. Bleeding in advanced cancer can be high, even this bleeding can be dangerous for life.
The place where cancer is, it determines bleeding. Bleeding may occur in the stool in cancer associated with the digestive tract. Cancer-associated with urinary tract can bleed in urine. Other cancers can cause blood in internal areas of the body. Bleeding in the lungs can cause a person to get blood in a cough.
Blood clots – Some cancers produce substances that cause the blood to form in the body, mainly in the nerves of the legs. Blood clots in the nerves of the feet sometimes break down, which spread to the whole body which can be fatal for you. Extreme cloaking is common among people with pancreatic, lungs and other solid tumors and those with brain tumors.
Weight Loss and Fatigue – Typically, the person with cancer experience weight loss and fatigue, which can worsen this condition due to the increase in cancer. Some people have reported a loss of weight despite a good appetite. While some people may have difficulty in hunger or swallowing food. They can be very thin. People with advanced cancer often are very tired. If anemia develops, such people may lack fatigue or shortness of breath with little activity.
Swelling in the lymph nodes – As soon as cancer begins to spread around the body, it can first spread to nearby lymph nodes, which is swollen. Inflammation lymph nodes are usually painless and may be hard or rubbish-like. If cancer studies are on stage, then these lymph nodes can get stuck in the skin above, trap them in layers of tissues or even in the middle.
Neurologic and muscular symptoms – cancer can compress the nerve or spinal cord. It can be any of neurologic and muscular symptoms such as pain, weakness or change in cognition (such as tingling stimulation) etc. When cancer increases in the brain, it can be difficult to detect symptoms, but it can cause confusion, dizziness, headache, nausea, vision changes and seizures. Symptoms of neurologic can also be part of an irreversible syndrome.
Respiratory symptoms – Cancer can compress or block structures such as airway in the lungs, which can cause shortness of breath, cough or pneumonia etc. Breathing may also occur when cancer causes the pleural effusion between the lungs and chest, causing bleeding or anemia in the lungs.
Causes of cancer
Cancer is a comprehensive group of diseases and there are many reasons for it. Many genetic and environmental factors increase the risk of developing cancer. According to each biology and pathology, each cancer is of a different type. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the following are common factors for cancer:
- The cause of cancer is genetic
- Age-related to cancer causes
- Environmental factors are the cause of cancer
- The use of a bad diet is the cause of cancer
- Increase the Medicines and Medical Treatment Cancer Risk
- Cancer causes infection
- Inflammatory Disorders Are Due to Cancer Disease
- One of the causes of cancer is poor defense
1. The cause of cancer is genetic
Genetic changes due to cancer can be inherited from our parents. Some families have a significant risk of developing certain types of cancer. Sometimes there is a risk of a single gene causing it to grow. Abnormalities affecting serious gene (mutation) are known to contribute to the development of cancer. These genes produce proteins that regulate growth and change cell division and other basic cell properties.
An additional or abnormal chromosome can increase the risk of cancer. For example, people with Down syndrome have three copies of chromosome 21 rather than normal two copies. They have 12 to 20 times more risk of developing leukemia.
2. Age-related to cancer causes
Some cancers such as Wilms tumors, retinoblastoma and neuroblastoma are especially in children. These cancerous sectors are produced from gene mutations that either be inherited or occur during the development of the fetus. However, most other cancers are more common in adults, especially in older people. The growth rate of cancer is probably due to long-term contact with a carcinogen.
3. Environmental factors are the cause of cancer
Many environmental factors increase the risk of developing cancer.
Tobacco smoke contains carcinogen which increases the risk of the lungs, mouth, throat, esophagus, kidney and bladder cancer to a great extent. People who smoke also increase the risk of lung cancer.
Pollutants such as asbestos, industrial waste or cigarette smoke can increase the risk of cancer in air or water. Many chemicals are known to cause cancer. For example, exposure to asbestos can be the cause of lung cancer and mesothelioma (lung cancer). Staying in contact with pesticides is associated with some types of cancer (for example, leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). The reason for the development of chemicals and cancer has to come in contact with the chemical for a long time.
Radiation exposure is one of the main reasons for the development of cancer. Exposure of ultraviolet radiation is mainly due to sunlight which causes skin cancer. Ionization radiation is a special carcinogen. X-rays (including computed tomography use ionization radiation and those who have high levels of X-rays using high doses increase the risk of cancer. Exposure to radioactive gas radon (which is released from soil) increases the risk of lung cancer.
Many other substances are investigating possible causes of cancer, but more study is needed to identify those chemicals that increase the risk of cancer.
4. The use of a bad diet is the cause of cancer
Foods eaten in the diet can increase the risk of cancer. For example, rich diet and fatness in unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of colon, breast and possibly prostate cancer. People who drink large amounts of alcohol, head, and neck are at high risk of developing cancer. Spicy food or excessive consumption of barbecue meat can increase the risk of colon cancer. People overweight or obese have a greater risk of breast cancer.
5. Increase the Medicines and Medical Treatment Cancer Risk
Some medicines and medical treatments can increase the development of cancer. For example, estrogen present in oral contraceptives can increase the risk of breast cancer gradually, although this risk decreases over time. Hormone estrogens and progestins given to women during menopause (hormone replacement therapy) also increase the risk of breast cancer.
The level of extra estrogen promotes uterine cancer. Tamoxifen is a medicine used to treat breast cancer, which increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Long-term use of testosterone or another male hormone (androgen) can also increase the risk of liver cancer. Cancer treatment with some chemotherapy agents and radiation therapy can later increase the risk of developing other cancers.
6. Cancer causes infection
Many viruses are known to cause cancer in humans and many other viruses are suspected to be cancerous. The human papillomavirus (HPV – human papillomavirus) is a major cause of cervical cancer in women and is one of the reasons for penile and anal cancer in men. HPV also causes some cancers of the throat. Hepatitis B virus or the hepatitis C virus can lead to liver cancer. Some human retroviruses are due to the lymphoma and other cancers of the blood system. Some viruses cause a type of cancer in some countries, but in other countries, there are other types of cancer. For example, Epstein-bar virus causes Burkitt lymphoma (a type of cancer) in Africa and nasal and pharyngeal cancer in China.
Some bacteria may also cause cancer. Helicobacter pylori which cause stomach ulcers can increase the risk of stomach cancer and lymphoma.
7. Inflammatory Disorders Are Due to Cancer Disease
Inflammatory disorders often increase the risk of cancer. Such disorders include ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, which may result in colon cancer and bile duct cancers.
8. One of the causes of cancer is poor defense
Bad immunity is the cause of many cancers including HIV infection, including capsid sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and anal cancer associated with HPV and cervical cancer. (Read more: Infection: Types, Signs, Prevention, Treatment)
How to prevent cancer?
There is no sure way to stop cancer. But doctors have identified several ways to reduce the risk of your cancer. like –
- Stop smoking – if you smoke, leave it immediately. And if you do not, then do not start doing it. Smoking cannot be just lung cancer, but other types of cancers.
- Avoid Excessive Incubation – The sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays can increase the risk of skin cancer. By staying in the shade, wearing protective clothing or sunscreen, you can limit the sun’s risk.
- Eat a healthy diet – Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Select Whole Grains and Fat-Exhausted Protein.
- Exercise for most days of the week – Regular exercise can reduce the chances of getting cancer. Keep a minimum of 30 minutes of exercise.
- Healthy Weight – Maintain Healthy Weight Overweight or obesity can increase the risk of cancer. Work to achieve and maintain a healthy weight through a healthy diet and a combination of regular exercise.
- Reduce the intake of alcohol – excessive consumption of alcohol can increase the risk of cancer.
- Schedule screening tests of cancer – Depending on the factors of your risk, ask the doctor if you have any screening test for which cancer will be the best.
How is cancer diagnosed?
If the diagnosis of cancer is done in the early stages. The more likely it is to recover. Ask the doctor who will be the best cancer screening test for you.
In some types of cancers, life can be saved by diagnosing screening test cancer.
Recommendations and guidelines are given for the diagnosis of cancer in various types of medical organizations and patient-advocacy groups.
Review the different guidelines with your doctor and determine what is the best treatment for you based on your cancer risk factors.
The doctor can use one or more methods to diagnose cancer –
- Physical examination – The doctor can feel the tumors in parts of your body, which indicates the tumor. During the physical examination, he can see abnormalities, such as changes in skin color or an increase in the organ that may indicate the presence of cancer.
- Laboratory tests – With urine and blood tests, doctors can identify abnormalities which can be caused by cancer. For example, in people with leukemia, a normal blood test, also called full blood count, contains unusual numbers or types of white blood cells.
- Imaging Test – Imaging Tests Doctors allow your bones and internal organs to be tested in a non-ineffective manner. The imaging test used in the diagnosis of cancer includes a computerized tomography (CT) scan, bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scan, ultrasound and X-ray.
- Biopsy – During a biopsy, doctors gather a sample of cells for testing in the laboratory. There are several ways to collect samples. Which type of biopsy procedure is right for you, it depends on your cancer and its location. In most cases, a biopsy is the only way to definitely diagnose cancer. In the laboratory, doctors see cell samples from the microscope. Normal cells look identical with the same size and systematic organization. Cancer cells look less organized, with different shapes and without explicit organization.
After a diagnosis of cancer, doctors will know the extent of your cancer. The doctor will treat you on the basis of your cancer stage.
Staging tests and processes can include imaging tests, such as bone scans or X-rays. To see if cancer has spread to other parts of the body. The stages of cancer are usually indicated by Roman numerals – The more points I get from I to iv, the more advanced cancers are. In some cases, the use of letters or words in the stage of cancer is used.
How is cancer treated?
There are many types of cancer treatment. The type of treatment given to the patient depends on the type of cancer and depends on how cancer has developed (serious).
Some people suffering from cancer are treated with the same treatment therapy. But most people suffering from cancer are treated with many therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy with surgery. When the patient is required to undergo cancer treatment, he has to understand and learn about his treatment in much detail. It is normal for the patient to be distraught and confused, but talking to the doctor and learning about his therapies can help the patient control his anxiety.
- Surgery – When used to treat cancer, surgery is used as a procedure to remove cancer from inside the body.
- Radiation Therapy – In this process, high radiation rays are used to kill cancer cells and reduce tumors.
- Chemotherapy – In this process, some such medicines are given to the patient, who directly attack the cancer cells in the body.
- Immunotherapy – This helps the body’s immune system to eliminate cancerous cells and tumors.
- Targeted Therapy – This therapy is targeted for cancer cells that help in developing and spreading cancer.
- Hormone Therapy – With the help of this therapy, the cancer prevention or slowing of cancer in the breast cancer and the viral gland is slowed.
- Stem Cell Transplant – This process removes the stem cells formed from the blood. These stem cells are destroyed during taking chemotherapy or radiation therapy from the patient’s body.
- Precision Medicine – These medicines understand the illness based on the patient’s heritability, and the doctor helps in selecting the best treatment for the patient.
Cancer risks and complications
What complications can be caused by cancer?
There can be many complications in cancer and its treatment –
- Pain – Pain can be caused by cancer or cancer treatment, although not all cancers are painful. Cancer-related pain can be effectively treated by medicines and other methods.
- Fatigue – There are many reasons for fatigue in people with cancer, but they can often be managed. Fatigue is common in chemotherapy or radiation therapy, but it is usually temporary.
- Difficulty breathing – Cancer or cancer treatment can be difficult to breathe. The treatment can provide relief.
- Nausea – There may be nausea in the treatment of some cancers and cancer. Nausea is also sometimes due to treatment. Medicines and other treatments can help prevent or reduce nausea.
- Diarrhea or constipation – The treatment of cancer and cancer can affect your bowel. And can cause diarrhea or constipation.
- Weight loss – Due to cancer and its treatment, weight loss can occur. Cancer removes food from normal cells and deprives them of nutrients.
- Chemical changes in your body – Cancer can bother normal chemical balance in your body. And can increase the risk of serious complications. Symptoms of chemical imbalance can include excessive thirst, persistent urination, constipation, and delusions.
- Problems in the brain and nervous system – Cancer can suppress nearby nerves and cause pain and loss in one part of your body. Cancer involves symptoms such as a headache and stroke, there may be a weakness on one side of your body.
- Reactions of an abnormal immune system to cancer – In some cases the body’s immune system can react to a cancerous appearance by attacking healthy cells. It is also called paraneoplastic syndrome, due to its rare reactions, it may show signs of difficulty like walking.
- Cancer spread – due to the increase in cancer, it can spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The spread of cancer depends on its type.
- Back to cancer – People living in cancer are at risk of having cancer again. Some cancers are more likely to be again than others. Ask the doctor what you can do to reduce the risk of cancer resuscitation. After treatment, the doctor can prepare a follow-up care plan for you.
In order to see the recurrence of cancer, this plan may include periodic scans and examinations in months and years after your treatment.
Cancer risk factors
Cancer is the risk factor –
- Your age – Cancer takes decades to happen. This is the reason that most people diagnosed with cancer are over 65 years of age.
- Your habits – Some lifestyle choices are known to increase the risk of cancer. Smoking can be more, exposure to sun exposure or obesity, and having unprotected sex can lead to cancer.
- Family history – Family history can also cause cancer. If cancer is common in your family. There is a possibility that mutation can be passed from one generation to another.
- Your Health Problems – Some health problems like ulcerative colitis will increase the condition of some types of cancer in you. Talk to your doctor about your risk.
- Your environment – There may be harmful chemicals in your surroundings that may increase the risk of cancer. If you live with a smoker Or if chemistry at home or workplace, such as asbestos and benzene are juicy, then it can increase the risk of cancer.
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