Breast Cancer: When there is a mutation in the genes that control the growth of cells, then they are cancerous. Due to mutations, the cells are divided into uncontrolled and chaotic and their multiplication occurs. Cells are multiplied by which abnormal cells develop instead of healthy cells. This results in the tumor, in most cases, as a result.
Breast cancer develops in breast cells. Generally, cancer is made in breast lobules or ducts. These are the glands in which milk is made and which gives the milk a way to reach the nipples from the glands. Cancer can also be made in fatty and fibrous breast tissues. It is also called stromal tissue.
Uncontrolled cancer cells start attacking healthy breast tissues and can also reach the lymph nodes of the arm. Lymph nodes are the main way of transmitting cancer cells to other organs of the body.
Breast cancer in India
Breast cancer is the most common in women’s invasive cancer (which can spread to other cells or tissues). It is 16% of cancer in women and 22.9% of invasive cancer. 18.2% of all cancer deaths worldwide are caused by breast cancer.
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in most cities in India and this is the second most common type of cancer in rural areas. In these cities, about 25% to 32% of women having cancer can have breast cancer.
- Types of Breast Cancer
- Steps of breast cancer
- Symptoms of Breast Cancer
- Causes of breast cancer
- Prevention of breast cancer
- Breast cancer test
- Breast Cancer Treatment
- Risks and complications of breast cancer
- Dieting in Breast Cancer
- What should be eaten in breast cancer?
- Some Essential Factors That You Should Know About Breast Cancer
Types of breast cancer
There are many types of breast cancer. It is determined by what kind of cancer you have. How to treat it. The most common types of breast cancer are:
- Ductal carcinoma in situ, DCIS: This is non-invasive cancer – when the cancer cells do not spread to the surrounding cells or tissues) precursors (precursor; one stage or substance from which the other formed ). If you are DCIS then the ducting lines on the breast change and they start becoming cancerous. However, like cancerous cells, they have not reached the breast tissue.
- Lobular Carcinoma In Situ, LCIS: It is cancer that develops in the milk forming earring, although it does not spread to surrounding tissues.
- Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, IDC: This is the most common type of breast cancer. It is produced in the milk ducts and attacks the surrounding breast tissues. Once cancer spreads out of the milk tubes, then it can also spread to surrounding tissues and organs.
- Invasive Lobular Carcinoma, ILC: It is formed in the first breast lobules or milk glands. If the diagnosis of cancer has happened in the form of ILC, it means that cancer has spread to surrounding tissues and organs so far.
Other types of breast cancer are not so common:
Inflammatory Breast Cancer: The cells inhibit lymph nodes, in which the breast is not fully absorbed. However, instead of making tumors, breast milk is swollen due to IBC, they are red and can feel warm. The cancerous breast may appear crispy and thick, similar to the orange peel. This type is only one percent of the breast cancers.
Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: To be diagnosed with this type of cancer, it is important that the tumor has the following three symptoms:
- Do not have estrogen receptors.
- It does not have progesterone receptors.
- Extra HER2 proteins (HER2 protein increases the development of breast cancer) on its surface.
- If the tumor shows all the three symptoms, then it is called Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. This type of cancer spreads and grows faster. It is also very difficult to treat this kind of cancer.
Paget Disease Of The Nipple: This type of breast cancer is produced in the breast duct, but as it grows, it affects nipple skin and Ariola. Paget disease can also occur with other types of breast cancer*, such as DCIS or IDC.
Phyllodes Tumor: It is a very rare type of cancer that occurs in the connective tissues of the breast.
Angiosarcoma: Cancer that occurs in the blood vessels of the breast or lymph vessels is called angiosarcoma.
Stages of breast cancer
According to the severity of breast cancer*, it can be divided into stages. The doctor should have the following information to detect the stage of breast cancer:
- Cancer Invasive (Invasive – when cancerous cells spread to adjacent cells or tissues) or non-invasive – when cancerous cells do not spread to surrounding cells or tissues)
- How big is the tumor
- Whether lymph nodes are involved or not
- Does cancer spread to other organs?
There are five main stages of breast cancer:
Stage 0: Breast cancer is Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, DCIS. This is a type of cancer re-occurrence. In DCIS the cancer cells live in the duct of the breast and have not reached each other’s tissues.
Stage 1: Stage 1 tumors are not larger than 2 centimeters (cm) in size. Lymph nodes in this stage of cancer are not affected.
Stage 2: There are two types of breast cancer in this stage. In the first case, the size of the tumor is not larger than 2 cm but the cancerous lymph nodes are spread. In other types, the size of the tumor is between 2 to 5 cm but the cancerous lymph nodes or the surrounding tissues are not spread.
Stage 3: There are many types of cancers in this stage. In the past, the size of the tumor is not larger than 5 cm but this cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or lymph nodes. It may also happen that cancer spreads to the chest or skin, but not to the lymph nodes. In other types, tumors can be of any size and spread to the lymph nodes (even if they are away).
Stage 4: At this stage, tumors can be of any size and, the tumor has spread to both lymph nodes both near and far.
Symptoms of Breast Cancer
Generally, there is no trace of breast cancer at the initial stage. The size of the tumor may be small (which can not be felt), although no abnormalities can be seen in the Mammogram. The first signs of having a tumor are often lumps or lump, which was not previously there. Although not every tumor is necessary for cancer, so contact your doctor if you feel knee.
The following symptoms can be found in breast cancer:
- feeling the thickness of the knot or tissue (which has just been made)
- On the skin of the skin, forming piles on the skin or reading of skin
- Swelling of whole breast or part of the breast
- Fluid discharge from breast milk other than breast milk
- Nipple bleeding
- Peeling the skin of nipples or breast
- Sudden and unexplained changes in the size of the breast
- Changes in Breast Skin
- Inflammation or clotting of the arm
- Inverted nipples (Inverted nipples-nipple side of the nipple onwards)
Having any of these symptoms does not mean that you have breast cancer. If any symptoms are found, contact your doctor.
Causes of Breast Cancer
Experts were certainly unable to detect the cause of breast cancer. The following causes can increase the risk of breast cancer:
Aging or getting older
The age of the woman increases the risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer found in women occurs in women over 50 in more than 80% of cases (after menopause).
Genetics; Genetic Science
If a close relative of a woman has breast cancer or ovarian cancer or has been done, then such women are more at risk of breast cancer*. If two members of the family are breast cancer*, then this does not mean that their genes were similar because they had this cancer because breast cancer* is common cancer.
Most breast cancers are not genetic.
Women who have BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are more prone to breast cancer* and ovarian cancer. These jeans may be inherited. TP53 is another gene that increases the risk of breast cancer.
Early Menstrual Period
In women who start menstruation before the age of 12, the risk of breast cancer is slightly increased.
History of Breast Cancer
Women who have had breast cancer* before, even if they are non-invasive – that do not spread to other cells or tissues, they have a greater risk of having breast cancer* than other women.
Having Breast Lips
The women who have had cancerous tumors on their breast are more prone to cancer.
Dense Breast Tissue present in the breast
In women whose breast tissues are more intense, the risk of breast cancer is greater.
Late or No Pregnancy, delayed or not pregnant
The risk of breast cancer increases even after the first pregnancy or conception after 30 years of age.
Menopause after the age of 55 increases the risk of breast cancer.
Not Being Physically Active
Women who do not perform excessive physical activity increase the risk of breast cancer.
Obesity increases the risk of many diseases. Women who have high weight are more likely to have breast cancer.
Combination Hormone Therapy (Combination Hormone Therapy)
For more than five years, taking hormonal medicines to replace estrogen and progesterone in menopause also increases the chance of breast cancer.
By taking contraceptive drugs (Taking Birth Control Pills)
Some contraceptive medicines increase the risk of breast cancer.
Alcohol Consumption And Smoking
It has been found that excessive consumption of alcohol and smoking increases the likelihood of breast cancer.
Women who do such jobs, which are more likely to come into contact with carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, those women have a higher risk of breast cancer* compared to other women:
- Agricultural Jobs – About 35% more risk
- Bar or Casino in Bar or Casino – More Than Doubling
- Automotive Plastics Manufacturing Jobs – Risks Threefold
- Food Canning Jobs – More Than Doubtful Than
- Metalworking Jobs – Approximately 75% more risks
Rescue from breast cancer
Some changes in lifestyle can be avoided by the risk of breast cancer* in women.
- Alcohol and smoking consumption: The risk of breast cancer* increases in women who regularly consume excessive alcohol or smoking.
- Physical Exercise: Women who exercise regularly for five days a week, have a lower risk of breast cancer*.
- Diet: Experts believe that consumption of balanced and healthy diet can prevent the risk of breast cancer* in women.
- Hormone Therapy after Menopause: Hormone therapy reduces the risk of breast cancer*. The patient should consult a doctor about its benefits and disadvantages before doing this.
- Body weight: Higher body weight also has the risk of breast cancer*. This danger can be avoided by maintaining a healthy body weight.
- Breastfeeding: Women who are breastfeeding are less likely to have breast cancer* than other women.
For women who have a higher risk of developing breast cancer*, medicines such as Tamoxifen and Raloxifene can be prescribed by the doctor for estrogen blocking. Tamoxifen increases the risk of Uterine Cancer. Women who have more risks may opt for surgery. Patients should talk to the pediatrician about when screening and screening of breast cancer* should be started.
Breast cancer test
To determine whether the symptoms are due to breast cancer* or due to any other breast problem, the doctor will do a complete physical examination and some other tests. Breast cancer* can be diagnosed with the help of the following tests:
- Breast Exam: The doctor examines the abnormal parts of both the breast examinations to complete a breast. Doctors can also examine other parts of the body so that it can be detected that the symptoms are not due to any other body problem.
- Mammogram: The best way to look under the surface of the breast is the imaging test called mammogram. Many women carry out annual mammograms to check that they do not have breast cancer*. If the doctor suspects you have a tumor or other suspicious problem, then the doctor can also ask for a mammogram. If there is any abnormality in the mammogram, then the doctor can also ask for other tests.
- Ultrasound: Breast ultrasound becomes a snapshot of breast tissue. Sound waves are used in ultrasound With the help of ultrasound, the doctor will be able to differentiate between tumors or cysts.
- Biopsy: If no results were found with mammogram and ultrasound, then the doctor can test a sample of the suspicious part and test it. With the help of sample, cancer can be detected.
Treatment of breast cancer
The treatment of cancer will be done by using which method it depends on which stage the cancer is, how much cancer is spread and the size of the tumor is big. After all, this is known, you can discuss the options of treatment with your doctor. The most common method of treatment is breast cancer* surgery. In addition to surgery, treatment methods such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy can also be adopted.
- Surgery: Several types of surgery are done to remove breast cancer:
- Lumpectomy: The suspected or cancerous part is removed by this procedure and the surrounding tissues are allowed to remain in their place.
- Mastectomy: By this procedure, the surgeon removes the full breast. Both masters are removed in a double mastectomy.
- Sentinel Node Biopsy: Some lymph nodes (which are flowing from the tumor) are removed by this surgery. Lymph nodes will be examined and if they are not cancerous then it may be that you do not need additional surgery to remove lymph.
- Ophthalmic Lymph Node Dissection: If the results of the Sentinel node biopsy test come positive, then this process may need to be done.
- Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy: Even if breast cancer* is in a breast only, but some women also decide to do a contraceptive prophylactic mastectomy. In this surgery, healthy breast is removed, thereby preventing the risk of breast cancer* again.
High-level rays of X-Rays can be used to destroy cancer cells. In most radiation treatments, a large machine is used outside the body (External Beam Radiation).
Cancers can be radiated inside the body due to progress in the treatment methods of cancer. This process is called brachytherapy. To perform this procedure, the surgeons keep radio-active seeds or pallets near the tumor inside the body.
Chemotherapy is a drug that can destroy cancerous cells. Some patients make chemotherapy only, but this procedure is often used with other options of treatment, especially surgery.
In some cases, chemotherapy is considered appropriate before the sector surgeries. The purpose of this is to prevent the tumor and not to cut or cut the surgery excessively. There are also many side effects of chemotherapy, about which patients should know before the treatment begins.
If your Hormones have an effect on breast cancer*, the doctor can initiate a medical treatment to block the hormones, which attempts to stop the development of cancer. There are two such hormones found in estrogen and progesterone females that increase the growth of breast cancer* tumor. Reducing the production or prevention of these hormones can reduce the development of cancer.
Certain medicines can be attacked by specific abnormalities and mutations of cancer cells. As such, the product of HER2 protein can be blocked from Herceptin (Trastuzumab). HER2 helps in growing cancer cells, so preventing the formation of this protein can prevent the development of cancer.
Risks and complications of breast cancer
Other diseases caused by breast cancer –
The mental risks are:
- Reduction in libido
- Depression due to physical changes due to intensive treatment
Additional physical problems are:
- Swelling in lung tissues
- Damage to the heart
- Making cancer cells out of your place and entering into another organ to make cancer
Chemotherapy may also have to withstand some risks:
- After 7 months of chemotherapy, the disease resistance decreases by 7-14 days, which can lead to infection.
- Hair fall
- Nausea and vomiting
- Constipation or diarrhea
- Dental or mouth problems such as pain in the gums, mouth ulcers etc.
- Breakthrough of skin and nails
- Being constantly exhausted fatigue
- Reduction in fertility
- Premature Menopause
- Signs of menopause such as hot flashes; feeling hot in the face, neck, ear and fuselage, vaginal related symptoms, etc.
Dieting in breast cancer
On diagnosis of breast cancer, note the following:
- Do not eat junk food.
- Do not consume alcohol
- Do not smoke.
- Do not become lazy and do moderate exercises so that the chances of cancer recurrence decrease.
- Do not worry and stay away from negativity.
What should eat in breast cancer?
- Eat a little more frequently throughout the day. This will prevent side effects from treatment such as nausea.
- Consume protein combined diet – Chicken, fish, eggs, beans, soya-rich foods, fat-free dairy products such as milk, curd, etc. They will help repair the cells and improve the immunity of disease.
- Eat whole wheat grains – Oatmeal / Oatmeal, Brown rice, Whole Wheat Bread, Whole Grain made from whole grains. Pasta). They get carbohydrates and fibers that help in maintaining the energy rate in the body.
- Eat fruits and vegetables. They get anti-oxidants.
- Consume healthy fat sources – Olive oil, avocados, Nuts etc.
- Eat less as sweet as possible.
- Keep drinking water. Try to eat at least 2 liters of fluid in the day. Minimize consumption of caffeinated beverages.
In 2018 October is a Breast cancer awareness month declared